Track 3: Smartness and development. Al-Souq: innovating for performance and management Fayruz 2
Nov 11, 2021 11:30 AM - 01:00 PM(Asia/Qatar)
20211111T1130 20211111T1300 Asia/Qatar Hybrid | Track 3 | Session 6. Strategic planning methods

Case studies on the evolution of a city based on incremental planning, urban growth expansion strategies, and collaboration practices in urban development 

NOTE: Speakers marked in * will participate in this hybrid session as a virtual attendee.

Fayruz 2 57th ISOCARP World Planning Congress in Doha, Qatar congress@isocarp.org

Case studies on the evolution of a city based on incremental planning, urban growth expansion strategies, and collaboration practices in urban development 

NOTE: Speakers marked in * will participate in this hybrid session as a virtual attendee.

Effect of Public Transportation on Urban Sprawl in the City of Bhopal, India View Abstract
Research Paper 11:30 AM - 01:00 PM (Asia/Qatar) 2021/11/11 08:30:00 UTC - 2021/11/11 10:00:00 UTC
Growing urban population has led to recognition of urban sprawl as a serious planning concern, especially in developing countries. Urban economists identify three major responsible forces that interact together and lead to spatial urban sprawl. First, the population growth resulting in outward expansion of urban areas; Second, rising income levels attract citizens to procure larger living space. These residences are generally located where land prices are less expensive i.e. suburban areas located at the outskirts of metropolitan areas (Carruthers & Ulfarsson 2002). Interestingly, the third, force responsible for inducing urban sprawl identified in literature is decreasing commuting costs produced by investments in transportation infrastructure which fuel outward expansion of development (Brueckner, 2000). Therefore through review of literature, it is understood that urban sprawl tends to occur where property values are lower on the periphery of urban centres (Pendall, 1999) and low cost public transport availability is one of the major factors that contribute to the sprawling of people from the city centre to the suburbs of the city. Bhopal, the capital city of central state of India implemented bus based public transport facility in year 2005 under National Urban Renewal Mission (NURM) and has till date many fold expanded the service to suburban regions targeting people living there. Notably the municipal area of city has also increased from 265 square kilometres in year 2005 to 463 square kilometres in year 2020. This research study attempts to explain the relationship between public transport expansion and urban sprawl, taking the case study of Bhopal. Spatial data for Bhopal was developed for the years ranging from 2005 to 2020 using QGIS and Google Earth Pro, in order to understand the changing city footprint along with details of public transport network over the corresponding period from Bhopal Municipal Corporation (BMC). Standard urban spatial single-mode model (Brueckner, 1987) to incorporate public subsidies for one mode, i.e. bus based public transport was used. Comparative statistical analysis of model produces empirically testable hypotheses and identified the relation between expansion of city and public transportation available in city by observing the all maps of past to present years of Bhopal. At the end of the research papers it has been highlighted how public transport expansion impacts urban sprawl by means of the correlation coefficients and spatial analysis. Our most important theoretical result is that the transit subsidies on the suburban areas are directly related to urban sprawl. Arguably, public transport which was targeted as strategy to promote sustainable urban development has resulted in sprawl. The paper ends with a recommendation to examine and analyze the impact of public transport service expansion to sub-urban regions in light of city expansion.
Presenters
RT
Rahul Tiwari
Professor, Maulana Azad National Institute Of Technology (MANIT) Bhopal, India
Co-authors
UK
Utkarsh Kaushik
Student, MANIT
LD
Lakshmana Rao Devadaru
Student, MANIT
Landscape of Differences. Strategic vision for Berlin - Brandenburg 2070View Abstract
Case Study Report 11:30 AM - 01:00 PM (Asia/Qatar) 2021/11/11 08:30:00 UTC - 2021/11/11 10:00:00 UTC
It is a vain effort to predict political, economic, cultural, and technological developments of the future. A quick look at the past makes that clear. Nevertheless, there are challenges that we know will persist far beyond a decade or century. We are certain that the climate is changing, and we know that the weather in Brandenburg will become warmer and drier. This will affect food production and biodiversity. Structures in industry, agriculture, and energy will have to adapt to new realities, as well as landscape, water, and biosystems will be affected by these changes. Landscape of Differences suggests initiating a long-term transformation process to ensure a resilient and productive future for Brandenburg and Berlin. This transformation creates the framework in which the lives of citizens, including all their social and economic facets, can freely unfold and remain secure in the future. Starting with the Brandenburg ecosystems, it forms the basis for systemic and sustainable change and this process is reflected in four landscapes: water, energy, mobility, and city. The strategy evolves around the concept of a landscape network that suggests guiding urban and rural development. It forms a green-blue grid that emerges from unified groundwater and protection zones. The water landscape penetrates and supports the city and region. A system of green corridors of protected habitats for flora and fauna increases biodiversity. Water bodies and wetlands are further protected; monocultural large-scale agricultural areas are transformed into climate-resilient farms. These are the elements of a circular economy for sustainable, respectful yet profitable land use. Intersections of urban and water landscapes will become a new center that will emerge and grow together. Berlin-Brandenburg, nature, and city are linked to form a landscape of differences of natural and man-made spaces. The existing settlement structure is purposefully densified and transformed in a targeted manner. These hubs become the centers of tomorrow - not overstretched city outskirts, but vibrant centers with a unique quality of life - in nature and with the water. Energy networks are decentralized, solar collectors and wind turbines are integrated into the landscape where wind speed, ground conditions, topography, and settlement structure are the most efficient. The mobility focus is on the transport intermodality and polycentricity, allowing repurpose of gained space into public space. To achieve this holistic overview, a new approach is necessary. We use, what we call, digital urbanism. The method of collecting geospatial data and filtering it, to create a variety of data sets. Using GIS analysis methods and empirical knowledge in urbanism, allowed us to analyze the existing conditions of the region layering different types of information. It builds a narrative that emerges from existing structures and looks at the issues related to the Berlin-Brandenburg context. Overlapping a variety of mobility streams and transport infrastructure with energy stations and urban fabric, suggested the possible locations for a mobility hub. Combining data of the wind speed, terrain, forest cover, and land use, helped to define the most optimal locations for a wind turbine park. Finally, looking at the water protection and flooding areas, water pollution urban settlements, and existing industrial sites, suggested locations for industrial site transformations. However, the project emphasis is not only on the larger scale, regional planning but also includes three specific sites, that represent three different urban nodes within the region: high-density neighborhood in Berlin, a medium-sized town in the intersection of Berlin settlement and Brandenburg, and a rural setting - a regional park. Each of them represents a different set of tools to enable a more resilient way of living in the city and with nature.
Presenters Thomas Stellmach
Founder, TSPA
Co-authors
AM
Aurelija Matulevičiūtė
Urban Planner And Designer, TSPA (Thomas Stellmach Planning And Architecture)
Towards the transition to zero-carbon community: scientific framework for integrated social, economic, and technologyView Abstract
Research Paper 11:30 AM - 01:00 PM (Asia/Qatar) 2021/11/11 08:30:00 UTC - 2021/11/11 10:00:00 UTC
Qatar like most of other Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries is experiencing a technology-driven transformation towards a low-carbon and energy-efficient built environment. This was reflected in different government initiatives and efforts to promote and adopt the use of renewables energies to encourage the development of low carbon smart cities by intensively investing in ICT-based solutions (e.g., Lusail city in Qatar). This push is a part of a highly publicized (and controversial in academic literature) efforts to reshape urban development through megaprojects, centralized master planning and westernized approaches conveying modernism and global affluence. However, this is often contrasted with the conservative societies of the region, the large consumption footprints, and the preferences of local people towards large and isolated residential houses (rather than high-rise buildings or congested high-tech cities). In this context, the idea of (smart and) connected communities that develop synergies through the use of technology and infrastructure is technically feasible and relevant for Qatar and the region. However, this idea poses several questions with regard to the premise of ‘community’ and the associated social and economic aspects such as coherence, privacy, acceptability, affordability and types of incentives that help to switch toward 100% renewable energy production and use. This study aims at developing a scientific framework that integrates the social, economic, and technological factors that are significant in the process of the transition to zero-carbon energy at the community level. The proposed framework includes community digital twin and analytic and economic engines to evaluate options and alternatives. The study will focus on the social attitudes that help the implementation of new technologies to achieve zero-carbon communities. Furthermore, this research will examine the personal, psychological, economical, and contextual factors that combine together to shape public acceptance.
Presenters Ammar Abulibdeh
Assistant Professor Of Geography And Urban Planning, Qatar University
Incremental PlanningView Abstract
Research Paper 11:30 AM - 01:00 PM (Asia/Qatar) 2021/11/11 08:30:00 UTC - 2021/11/11 10:00:00 UTC
We often find ourselves wandering through the older parts of cities and these places are generally walkable, diverse, varied, and engaging. And they seem always to elicit the same question—why can’t we make places like this today? The one consistent characteristic common to all these areas is that they were developed incrementally, over time, evolving with each addition. The additions can vary in size and frequency and be more or less consecutive, but the basic idea is that city growth occurs through the completion of small projects. Historically this is the process of subdividing land. The increment of development—the subdivided parcel—was small. This seemingly arbitrary growth was true regardless of a centrally derived town plan or a city that grew by planning on the margins. In many cases, the idea of incremental growth is referred to as an organic progression. While wandering through Marrakech the mind contemplates the irregular pattern of the inviting “organic” streets. This perception is a misapprehension in which organic composition comprises forms that are not regular or orthogonal, thereby clouding the actual underlying characteristic of the city’s development. That is, the seeming randomness of the city’s development pattern isn’t the result of its level of incremental development. Instead, it is a reflection of the type of incremental development. It is a city developed in the absence of a projected, planned public framework. Whether a city possesses a proposed public framework as with New York’s Commissioner’s Plan, or it does not, as in the case of Chinon’s historic center, neither is indicative of the level of incremental development intrinsic to expansion. New York’s structure is not perceived as incremental by virtue of the projected plan with its generally straight lines and right angles. And it is certainly not commonly referred to as organic. However, development happened in a primarily incremental manner, and in many ways, organically, although operationally organic, not compositionally organic. The city grew through a large number of small changes. New York is a rational, gridiron plan. Paris is a series of generally straight streets that aren’t parallel. London is a series of not-so-straight streets that are rarely parallel. In the compositional sense of the word, organic somehow equals irregularity of form. By this assessment, it is probably accurate to say New York is the least and London the most organic of the three examples. But in the operational sense of the word, organic represents an incremental process of development over time, with many small projects developed individually. Today, almost all planning starts with a projection. This is like mapping out potential future uses with precise planning zones across areas to be developed and includes new cities, redevelopment areas, and pretty much every development, regardless of scale. All planning starts with and is supported by this legal framework and conventions that make changing the process virtually impossible.
Presenters
DG
David Green
Principal, Perkins&Will
Cities vision 2030View Abstract
Case Study Report 11:30 AM - 01:00 PM (Asia/Qatar) 2021/11/11 08:30:00 UTC - 2021/11/11 10:00:00 UTC
Tractebel developed a Cities Vision for the horizon 2030 for ENGIE Research that aims to sketch a qualitative understanding of the current and future worldwide urban landscape. Understanding the evolution of cities is at the heart of this vision. The first research track examined by the Cities 2030 Vision is ‘global trends’: the evolution of cities is not solely ‘market’ driven, but is also the result of global ‘megatrends’, political conditions and sometimes of unexpected emerging new issues. The impact of these trends and issues (like climate change, technologization, demography, energy transition, resource scarcity, social transformation…) are different for a diverse group of cities, depending on their ‘maturity’, location, scale, population, urban qualities and weaknesses, governance model… it is therefore key to have a good view on the worldwide cities’ response towards these trends to understand their possible development pathway, and in order to anticipate the ‘market’. More than 100 key drivers of change were detected in the manifold dimensions that characterise contemporary cities. This research includes demographical, environmental, social, technological, geo-political, economic and spatial trends. All together they allow us to draft a global picture of which external forces act in favour (or as obstacles) of a sustainable development of cities and territories around the globe. Simultaneously, the second research-track focused on cities typologies. Understanding that the future development pathway of each city will depend (also) from its inherent characteristics, weaknesses and strengths, the ‘typological approach’ was assumed as adequate to describe the contemporary urban condition worldwide. This approach assumes that cities worldwide sharing some common attributes and characteristics can be seen as belonging to the same group or category. And although each real city follows a single and specific model of development - according to its social and cultural preferences, level of maturity, geographical conditions, financial resources, political and institutional capacities - it is possible to find similar development patterns for cities that belong to the same typology. Defining the common attributes of each typology of cities is a first step in the process of understanding how cities are and how they possibly will evolve in the next future. Nine city typologies were determined: global city - knowledge city - cultural city - industrial city - cultural city - resort city - historical city - administrative city - mega city. Each of the nine typologies was described in depth through qualitative data and a SWOT analysis in order to define key characteristics and future trends related to each typology. Additionally, eight development operations have been identified: informal urbanization – territorial interventions - synthetic operations – tactical actions – reclaiming operations – competitive model – technology driven – top down developments. They qualify the urban interventions and define the process through which cities generally evolve. Different development operations coexist in time and in space and together they help transform the city. City typologies and development operations can be used as tools to understand a city and its evolution between the past, present and future, or in other word its ‘story’. It becomes interesting to think about possible future developments and solutions that will allow a city (or typology if you want) to evolve into a better version of itself, or to adopt a different strategy by building a roadmap to shift into a different typology.
Presenters Charles-Edouard DELPIERRE
General Manager - Business Line Urban, Tractebel ENGIE
Collaborative planning mechanisms in urban megaproject development: the case of ChicagoView Abstract
Research Paper 11:30 AM - 01:00 PM (Asia/Qatar) 2021/11/11 08:30:00 UTC - 2021/11/11 10:00:00 UTC
Megaproject development operates based on the ‘iron-law of megaprojects’, which relies upon the logic of exception and includes: extra budget, special regulations, non-standard organisational structure, questioning of public accountability, and the central role of developers at the expense of the city leaders, planners and citizens. Frequently megaproject development happen on abandoned industrial sites or deprived urban areas – brownfields – usually situated within the inner city centre, well-connected to the transport nodes, equipped with diverse infrastructural networks, and close to the built urban patterns. Briefly put, such urban megaprojects are a point of interest to various stakeholders: developers chasing for profit, citizens tending to protect their local urban identity, and planners and public officials stretched between the ethical norms to protect the public interest and pressure imposed by financially powerful actors. With previous in mind, the crucial question is how to improve collaboration among different interest parties, negotiate diverse interests, and secure transparent planning leading to the outcome that will address many of the initially identified needs. We focus on the case of Lincoln Yards, a contemporary urban megaproject development in the central part of Chicago, United States. Using the overview of primary sources (legal and regulatory documents, and newspapers articles) and semi-structured interviews with the relevant stakeholders, we elucidate the following: 1) the response of professional planners towards the developer’s application, i.e., the intention to redevelop the area; 2) the approach applied and values promoted by developers; 3) the strategies used by the local community to protect the local identity and local needs; and 4) the relationship of public officials (aldermen) towards both the local public and investors. The core of the planning negotiation was happening for almost a year (May 2018 – April 2019) to depict the adaptation of the initial planning proposal according to the values, needs and interest on the ground. Finally, the case provides insights into the extent of innovation of planning mechanisms applied in urban megaproject development.
Presenters Ana Peric
Lecturer, ETH Zurich
Tijana Tufek-Memisevic
Candarc LLC
Co-authors
ZN
Zorica Nedovic-Budic
University Of Illinois, Chicago
Speculative Planning: Agrarian-Urban Transformation in Peri-Urban areas (Case study of Land Pooling Policy, Delhi)View Abstract
Research Paper 11:30 AM - 01:00 PM (Asia/Qatar) 2021/11/11 08:30:00 UTC - 2021/11/11 10:00:00 UTC
Much of the urban transformation in Delhi, similar to major metropolitan cities of India is taking place on the peripheral/peri-urban boundaries of the city. The Delhi Development Authority (DDA) has long identified urbanisation of agricultural lands as a key state strategy to undertake planned development in Delhi but its approach has changed over time - shifting from a land acquisition based approach rooted in a comprehensive master plan towards a land pooling policy anchored in a more market-led speculative planning approach. The research aims to understand the shifting role of the state in development of peri-urban areas through examining land pooling policy introduced by Delhi Development Authority. Focusing on one peri-urban village located in Delhi, the study also examines how the policy rolls out in place and over time and how local agrarian relations and equations have a large bearing on the development pattern that emerges in response to state-led land development. There are two bodies of literature that are referred in this research. The first deals with literature on how land is approached in planning of Delhi with a shift from comprehensive master planning to speculative planning. The second literature deals with agrarian-urban/peri-urban spaces, and associated agrarian and socio-economic relations as a result of the turn toward a more speculative planning. The research referred the prominent scholarly works in urban planning that is agrarian/frontier urbanism (Gururani & Rajarshi, 2018), speculative planning (Goldman, 2011), and informality in planning (Roy, 2009). A qualitative case study approach that relied on GIS Mapping, documentation, targeted interviews, oral history, and photographic survey was used in the analysis of case study area. Officials from DDA were also interviewed to analyse the policy components. The research reflects a shift in role of the state from imposing top-down modernist visions through master plans and/or zonal development plans, to a more bottom up, private sector led entrepreneurial development. The research found that tools used by DDA such as formation of consortium (group of landowners, or a developer) to prepare sector plans/layout plans in the proposed sector; tentative sector plans proposed by DDA based on ‘world class city’ vision in the new land pooling policy, seem to facilitate speculation around land, rather than regulating it. Though, the tentative sector plans may not roll out as per the plan as the implementation will depend on factors such as availability of pooled land, caste equation, size of landholdings, type of owner (private developer, village landowner), but they already facilitate speculation amongst the private builders and developers. The research revealed that the willingness of villagers to participate in the policy is dependent on social, economic, spatial, and political factors rooted in local context and unique to agrarian urban areas. For instance, unsustainability around agriculture coupled with land ownership size, ambiguity around certain provisions of the policy, competition between zamindar and private players, caste equation inside the village largely determines the stakes of village landowners participating in the policy or not. Thus, the speculative planning approach raises a question on inclusive, affordable, and accessible housing for poor income groups, even the small land owners inside the village. The research helped to analyse the shifting role of State in Urban Planning, and the entry of private actors acting as individuals or collectives within the new land pooling policy. This helps in understanding the rationale behind introducing speculative planning model in comparison to comprehensive planning previously practiced by the State and its implications for more inclusive and planned development.
Presenters VIPUL KUMAR
Manager, India Regional Office, UITP - International Association Of Public Transport
Industrial quarters. Redevelopment as a tool for the integrated development of the Moscow industrial zones that have lost their purposeView Abstract
Research Paper 11:30 AM - 01:00 PM (Asia/Qatar) 2021/11/11 08:30:00 UTC - 2021/11/11 10:00:00 UTC
The study «Redevelopment as a tool for the integrated development of the Moscow industrial zones that have lost their purpose» was prepared in connection with the need to form effective mechanisms for the integrated development of the former industrial zones to achieve the strategic development goals of Moscow. Subject of study: identification of territorial potential, priorities of urban development, determination of approaches and possible vectors of transformation of the former industrial zones. The industrial zones considered in this study are located mainly in the middle and peripheral zones (so-called the “rust belt”) and can become centers for the formation of new public and business spaces, a territorial resource for the polycentric scenario of the city development. Moscow is actively reorganizing industrial zones. In 2017, its occupied 17% of the city’s area. Of the 7.8 thousand hectares within the boundaries of the industrial zones, enterprises and organizations of science and industry occupy 50%. The rest of the plots are occupied by «non-core» objects for these zones, characterized by inefficient use of land resources. Now many of these areas are acquiring new functions and appearance. In the period from 2017 to 2020, the city surveyed 100% of the industrial areas, this is about 14.8 thousand hectares or more than 13% of the old Moscow total area. About 5.4 thousand hectares of this land are areas potentially suitable for urban development, including by ITD areas (Integrated territorial development). Urban development potential of ITD areas can reach about 37 million square meters. ITD is a set of measures carried out in accordance with the approved documentation for the planning of the area and aimed at updating the living environment and creating favorable living conditions for citizens, public space, ensuring the development of such area and its improvement. It’s a new urban tool, which received a legal basis in 2017 and was actively implemented in 2020. The objects of study were 21 industrial zones located on the area of 24 Moscow districts, including 38 ITD areas. Formalized models and detailed recommendations were prepared for the 13 pilot ITD areas. Objectives of the study: • Characteristics of strategic development resources. New challenges and competitive advantages of Moscow. • Revealing the features of the organization of industrial zones and ITD areas and the factors of their integration into the urban environment. • Determination of the industrial and economic potential of the zones and areas in the system of urban sub-centers. • Analysis of the world’s best practices in redevelopment. • Search for optimal methods of redevelopment of the industrial areas and ITD areas that have lost their industrial purpose. Methodology of the study consists in systematizing of trends of redevelopment in the world’s largest capitals, analyzing of the unique characteristics of the industrial zones and ITD areas and identifying of individual district requests. Assessment of the objects of the study was carried out a three-level structure: • City level. • District level. • Industrial zones level. As a result of the analysis, the division of urban deficits at the level of every studied district was carried out and 5 groups of districts with similar characteristics, existing conditions of infrastructural provision, the history of the development of the area and the prospects for reorganization were identified. Based on this grouping were selected 13 typical examples ITD areas and presented list of ideas for the placement of anchor facilities for the effective redevelopment. The study results will contribute to implement of a new planning model for polycentric Moscow, improving the quality of the urban environment in peripheral and middle areas and development of Moscow.
Presenters Maria Sedletskaya
Analytical Team Leader, Agency For Strategic Development
Co-authors
VI
Vladislav Ivanov
Assistant To CEO, The Agency For Strategic Development CENTER
Smart construction logistics governance – A systems view of construction logistics in urban developmentView Abstract
Research Paper 11:30 AM - 01:00 PM (Asia/Qatar) 2021/11/11 08:30:00 UTC - 2021/11/11 10:00:00 UTC
The growth of the urban population leads to increased demand for construction and renovation works in cities. Housing, public utilities, retail spaces, offices, and infrastructure projects are needed to meet the increasing number of residents and visitors, urban functions, and changing standards. While construction projects contribute to more attractive, sustainable, and economically viable urban areas, a vast amount of construction materials needs to be delivered to site. According to Guerlain et al. (2019), a construction site receives 2–10 deliveries or 8–10 tonnes of material per day. The impact of construction transport and urban development logistics is thus significant and, according to Guerlain et al. (2019), accounts for at least 30% of urban freight transports and impacts the surrounding community negatively (e.g. congestion, emissions, noise, use of public space, accidents) if not managed appropriately. With urbanisation, the amount of construction transport, and its related disturbances, is likely to increase (Deloison et al., 2020). Thus, there is a need to minimise the disturbances and emissions caused by construction logistics. One course of action is to decrease the number of construction transports or adapt their routing through planning. Transport planning is dependent on the planning of the construction works, but also on the city’s urban planning and existing legislation. Furthermore, construction transports are not independent from the rest of the urban logistics system and actions taken in other parts of the logistics system can severely impact the total number of transport movements and thereby the overall transport system’s efficiency. The latter is essential to reach UN SDG13 (taking urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts) for which improved planning shows great potential to increase transport efficiency (Eriksson, 2019). One often utilized approach to plan and control construction logistics activities is to employ construction logistics setups (CLSs). However, these initiatives rarely consider that end-users of the CLS, i.e., contractors, prioritize other goals than reduced disturbances. These perspectives clash as an overview is missing of the interactions and decisions taken during urban development that affect and are affected by construction logistics planning and management. The purpose of this paper is to develop a Smart Construction Logistics Governance Framework, providing a systems overview and guidance on tools to be used when deciding how to organize construction logistics in urban development. The paper builds on a longitudinal multiple-case study with cases from Austria, Belgium, Norway, and Sweden. The cases provide insights on different tools and approaches for gathering stakeholder input, simulation and forecasting of transport volumes, what type of services are needed in urban construction projects, and different governance measures and incentives. A cross-case analysis was performed to find similarities and differences between the countries. This led to a rich understanding of how construction logistics can be approached and governed in different European contexts and what knowledge should be transferred between cities regarding urban development and construction logistics. The result of the study is a conceptual framework, presenting a systems overview of the decision routes in urban development linked to construction logistics. Additionally, the framework provides guidance for developing construction logistics tools in a multi-layered urban development governance setting. References Deloison, T., Hannon, E., Huber, A., Heid, B., Klink, C., Sahay, R. & Wolff, C. The Future of the Last-mile Ecosystem: Transition Roadmaps for Public-and Private-sector Players. 2020. World Economic Forum. Eriksson, V. 2019. Transport Efficiency: Analysing the Transport Service Triad. Licentiate, Chalmers University. Guerlain, C., Renault, S. & Ferrero, F. 2019. Understanding Construction Logistics in Urban Areas and Lowering Its Environmental Impact: A Focus on Construction Consolidation Centres. Sustainability, 11.
Presenters
MJ
Mats Janné
Assistant Professor, Linköping University
Co-authors
AF
Anna Fredriksson
Vice Head Of Dept., PhD Education , Linköping University
MB
Monica Billger
Vice Head Of Dept., PhD Education, Chalmers University Of Technology
NB
Nicolas Brusselaers
PhD Researcher In Sustainable Logistics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
SM
Selamawit Mamo Fufa
Researcher, SINTEF
RA
Rodrigue Al Fahel
Project Manager, CLOSER/Lindholmen Science Park
KM
Koen Mommens
Researcher, Vrije Universiteit Brussel
A Reinforcement Learning-based Adaptive Control Model for the Future Street Infrastructure Planning: An Algorithm and A Case StudyView Abstract
Research Paper 11:30 AM - 01:00 PM (Asia/Qatar) 2021/11/11 08:30:00 UTC - 2021/11/11 10:00:00 UTC
With the emerging technologies in Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), the adaptive operation of road space is likely to be realised within decades. An intelligent street can learn and improve its decision-making on the right-of-way (ROW) for road users, liberating more active pedestrian space while maintaining traffic safety and efficiency. However, there is a lack of effective controlling techniques for these adaptive street infrastructures. To fill this gap in existing studies, we formulate this control problem as a Markov Game and develop a solution based on the multi-agent Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (MADDPG) algorithm. The proposed model can dynamically assign ROW for sidewalks, autonomous vehicles (AVs) driving lanes and on-street parking areas in real-time. Integrated with the SUMO traffic simulator, this model was evaluated using the road network of the South Kensington District against three cases of divergent traffic conditions: pedestrian flow rates, AVs traffic flow rates and parking demands. Results reveal that our model can achieve an average reduction of 3.87% and 6.26% in street space assigned for on-street parking and vehicular operations. Combined with space gained by limiting the number of driving lanes, the average proportion of sidewalks to total widths of streets can significantly increase by 10.13%.
Presenters Qiming Ye
PhD Student, Imperial College London
Co-authors
YF
Yuxiang Feng
Postdoc, Research Associate, Imperial College London
JH
Jing Han
PhD Student, Tongji University
MS
Marc Stettler
Senior Lecturer, Imperial College London
PA
Panagiotis Angeloudis
Reader, Imperial College London
Behavioral policy design for a car-dependent transport regime: shifting to sustainable alternativesView Abstract
Research Paper 11:30 AM - 01:00 PM (Asia/Qatar) 2021/11/11 08:30:00 UTC - 2021/11/11 10:00:00 UTC
Our experiences in an urban setting are driven by the choices we make and the perception we have about the urban-scapes. Although classical economists believe that humans make decisions based upon optimization of time and money, it has been very recently pointed out that there are anomalies in behavior arising from irrationality. Behavioral economists have suggested that behavior (such as notions of fairness, trust, commitment, social norms, etc.) results in outcomes that do not always conform with traditional economics. Establishing a framework of planning within which changing human behavior and influencing the decisions that they make habitually, is a key to secure the future of sustainable cities that we envision today. This paper is an attempt to illustrate the immediate need of putting personal experiences and community needs with respect to mobility in the forefront by prioritizing their travel behavior models for city planning. Although behavioral sciences have been applied to fields such as economics, psychology, sociology, etc., the application of behavioral sciences have been negligible in city planning. Being the backbone of the economy, transport reflects the growth of the country. As the country develops, the need for transport infrastructure increases resulting in an unprecedented growth of vehicles. The one way to mitigate urban issues stemming from private vehicle dependency is to enhance public transport usage but it is a Herculean task. Adopting public transport is a new way of life for many and therefore, requires a ‘behavioral change’. The paper aims to present a deeper insight into how behavioral design when inculcated into traditional policy designs as ‘behavioral nudges’ help in reducing the level of car pride among residents, taking into consideration the learnings from global examples about factors that drive people towards car-pro attitude. Car is seen as one of the foremost desired “cultural goods” around the world and is seen to have beyond its instrumental functions of transport and mobility; it holds the symbolic meaning of pride – of social rank and up-gradation of the personal image by means of owning and using a vehicle. The utility-based behavioral modelling supported the functional value of the car has been the dominant framework. However, the deeper context of the symbolic relationship between people, cars and transit has largely being ignored – a relationship that offers rise to emotions that drive choices to car purchase and usage. Nudge planning has the potential to unobtrusively create a shift in the preferences of the people, and help achieve desired policy outcomes while ensuring that the needs and the experiences of the people are not compromised. This paper attempts to establish human-focused design as a driver for better transport policy outcomes by tapping onto the social values, past experiences and habits, and mental models. Lastly, the study outlines the application of behavioral sciences to facilitate a shift from a ‘car-dependent’ to a ‘sustainable’ transport regime, driven by gamified information systems and digital paradigms built for the people by using drivers that motivate the very same people. The most important thing this paper tries to illustrate is that behavioral policies cannot be replicated and must be modified according to social, cultural or other similar variations per se. The question here is how people collectively make decisions about travel choices since the key to the behavioral design is to make these community-driven decisions simple, easy yet effective. KEYWORDS – behavior, car pride, cognition, nudge, social values
Presenters Sayani Mandal
Student, School Of Planning And Architecture, Bhopal
Co-authors
PN
Paulose N Kuriakose
Asst. Professor, School Of Planning And Architecture, Bhopal
Lecturer
,
ETH Zurich
Student
,
School of Planning and Architecture, Bhopal
PhD Student
,
Imperial College London
Assistant Professor
,
Linköping University
+ 9 more speakers. View All
ISOCARP - Technical Administrator
 Alexander Antonov
expert in Urban planning
Mrs Dalal   Farhat Harb
Managing Principal
,
Kasian Qatar Consulting
 Azhan Hasan
Consultant-Infrastructure and Advisor-Climate Change/Sustainability
,
Turner and Townsend LLC Qatar & Qatar Rail/Ministry of Municipality Environment (MME) Qatar
Electrical Engineer
,
Ministry of Municipality and Environment/ Planning Department
GIS Spesialit
,
ipd
Senior Infrastructure Engineer
,
Ministry of Municipality / Infrastructure Planning Department
+27 more attendees. View All
Program Navigator
135 hits